Categorisation of industries: Depending upon the pollution potential of different industries, the West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPCB) has classified the industrial units into three different categories: 'Red', 'Orange', 'Green' and 'Exempted'. The Red category units have maximum pollution potential, the Orange category units have moderate pollution potential and the Green units have the least pollution potential. All these three types come under the purview of Consent Administration. Activities listed as 'Exempted' are not required to obtain any consent of the Board.
Industrial Siting Policy: The Board follows a transparent industrial siting policy. Under this policy, the area-specific restrictions for setting up different industrial units within the geographical territory of the state have been clearly defined.
A total of 749 Seriously Polluting Industries were identified for regulatory compliance on an immediate basis. The WBPCB ensures that compliance is attained through negotiated agreements and technical guidance.
Consent Administration: Under the provisions of the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and the Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, any industry, operation or process or an extension and addition thereto, which is likely to discharge sewerage or trade effluent into the environment or likely to emit any air pollution into the atmosphere will have to obtain consent of the State Pollution Control Board. There are different types of consent issued under the provisions of Water (P&CP) Act 1974 and Air (P&CP) Act, 1981.
The WBPCB monitors various parameters of air, water and noise.
Ambient air quality monitoring: This is conducted at various monitoring stations in the state and near the polluting clusters of industries. Specific parameters like Oxides of Sulfur, Oxides of Nitrogen, Respirable Particulate Matter etc. Are monitored in the ambient air quality monitoring stations. Data of ambient air quality monitoring stations are presented at the web site of the Board (Please clink here for data).
Water quality monitoring: The WBPCB regularly monitors water quality of rivers, such as Hooghly, Damodar, Barakar and Rupnarayan by analysing the physico-chemical, bacteriological and biological parameters. Under the National Water Monitoring Programme (NWMP), the Board monitors the water quality of ninety seven (97) surface water bodies including ground water at areas with potential to have been impacted by industrial activity. The river water samples are collected every month from the surface water stations and every six monthly from ground water stations which are analyzed in six of the Board laboratories situated at Kolkata, Kankinada, Durgapur, Hooghly, Haldia and Dankuni. Details of the stations with frequencies are provided here.
Noise Pollution Monitoring: The noise characteristics from various sources, especially the areas in and around hospitals and schools in Kolkata, and its impact on human health are studied. Noise monitoring is specially done during festive days. Five Automatic Ambient Noise Measurement stations have been installed in Kolkata at Salt Lake (Paribesh Bhavan), Central Kolkata (KMC Buildings), Kasba Induatrial Area, SSKM Hospital Premise and Baishnabghata-Patuli (Satyajit Roy Park). Ambient Noise data are available on-line at cpcbnoise.com.
Hazardous Waste Management: In its endeavour to manage hazardous waste, the WBPCB has identified the industrial units generating hazardous waste. The Board has established a Common Hazardous Waste Treatment Storage & Disposal Facility at Haldia. This facility is being set up jointly by the Haldia Development Authority (HDA) and M/s. Ramky Enviro Engineers Ltd., who have formed a joint venture company named M/s. West Bengal Waste Management Ltd.
Solid Waste Management: Under the provisions of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, the Department of Urban Development, Government of West Bengal and the District Magistrates of the concerned districts have the responsibility of the management of municipal solid waste in West Bengal. The WBPCB has impressed upon the municipalities and the district authorities to comply with the provisions of the Rules from time to time.
Biomedical Waste Management: The Board has developed a Common Bio-medical Waste Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility at Howrah. The facility, set up by M/s Medicare Incin Pvt. Ltd., is operating successfully. Segregated bio-medical wastes are being collected from Kolkata, Howrah and the adjoining areas. Other such common waste treatment and disposal facilties are being developed at Kalyani, Mangalpur (Raniganj).
Biomedical Waste Management - Scenario in West Bengal.
Click here to view Final Report on Waste Inventory (MSW & BMW) in West Bengal.
In order to regulate pollution from different sources, the WBPCB legally deals with the non-complying units of the state. Various legal actions are taken against the polluting industries. Apart from imposing fines, bank guarantees are obtained from the pollution units, which are forfeited on compliance within the stipulated time period. In addition, the Board has constituted an Appellate Authority under the Water and the Air Acts.
In order to address and minimise public resentment against environmental problems in the state, the Public Grievance Cell of the Board is functioning since 1994. Public hearings are organised at Paribesh Bhaban, Salt Lake, the headoffice of the Board, where the aggrieved complainant and the industry/unit concerned are asked to appear before the hearing authority. After careful consideration of the representations from both the sides, necessary directions are issued.
Various steps were taken for controlling automobile emissions in the state. In the year 2000, the Board pioneered in introducing EURO-I (India 2000) and EURO-II (Bharat Stage II) norms for the new fleet of vehicles, way before the same was done in the other states of our country. While India 2000 norms were introduced for all new vehicles on April 1st, Bharat Stage II norms were introduced for new passenger cars within KMA on December 31st. For all new vehicles with GVW3500kg and GVW>3500kg of KMA, stricter emission standards were introduced by the Board with effect from October 23, 2001. Supply of unleaded petrol (containing 0.013 per cent lead) and 0.25 per cent reduction of sulphur content in diesel was made available from February 1, 2000 throughout the state. Very low sulphur (0.05 per cent) petrol and diesel were made available in KMA from January 1, 2001. In the same year, while the use, sale and distribution of loose 2T oil for two-stroke petrol vehicles were banned in KMA on October 1st, dispensation of 2T oil-premixed petrol through dedicated dispenser was started with effect from November 15. In June 2000, benzene content in petrol was reduced to 3 per cent. As per the directions of the Supreme Court, the state government has submitted an action plan on automobile pollution control in September 2000. In association with the State Department of Transport, the Board has facilitated the setting up of computerised and upgraded Emission Testing Centres (AETCs) and Pollution-under-Check (PUC) centres in West Bengal.
Click here to view the List of Computerized & Upgraded Auto Emission Testing Centers / PUC Centers in West Bengal
The Board continued its endeavour for controlling noise in the state by banning the manufacture, sale and bursting of firecrackers generating noise level more than 90dB(AI) at 5m from the point of bursting. A sound delimiter, for controlling noise pollution from microphones, was also developed in association with Webel. The State Board directed that for use of Diesel Generator set(s) of capacity 15KVA and above for non-industrial purposes, i.e. residential buildings, commercial buildings, office complex, cinema halls, banks, educational institutions etc, should require 'Consent to Establish' and 'Consent to Operate' from the Board, with effect from January 1, 2002.
The Board continuously conducts various training programmes with people from different sections of the society like school children, police and transport authorities, district and municipal authorities. Short term programmes on environmental pollution, noise and automobile pollution are also organised from time to time.
Workshops and training camps are often organised for the NGOs, a total of 223 NGOs have been enlisted by the Board. Anti-noise pollution campaign and observation of World Environment Day are some of the regular events conducted by the Board. Movie fillers have been prepared on automobile horns on sound limiters. Apart from this, competitions on essay writing, painting, quiz, debate and drama are organised for the school children all on environment-related issues, with the elementary idea of spreading environmental awareness.
The National Green Corps (NGC) programme introduced by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Goverment of India is aimed at spreading environmental awareness among school children by involving them in various environment-related activities. Children constitute the most significant sector of our society. The foundation for developing responsible citizens begins in the school, since young children are at an ideal age to start learning about environmental issues. By participating in environmental activities under the NGC programme, the children would very easily acquire the basic knowledge, skills, values and passion that promote environmental responsibility.
The implementation and management of the NGC program are vested in a few committees besides the large number of school-level Eco-Clubs. The State Steering Committee is responsible to coordinate the implementation of the National Green Corps programme in the State. District Implementation and Monitoring Committee (DIMC) headed by the District Magistrate has the responsibilities to oversee the implementation of the programme at the district level (reconstitution of both the committees are under process). The West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPCB) is the State Nodal Agency for the implementation of this programme in our state. Given below are the number of schools under this program in 2011-12.
|Sl. No.||Name of the District||Total No.of Eco-clubs
(as on 24/5/2012)
|14||North 24 Parganas||250|
|18||South 24 Parganas||250|
The selected schools for participation in this program are given an amount of Rs.2500/- annually to cover the expenses of the activities of the Eco-Club. This programme will provide an opportunity to encourage the students of the Eco-Club to put their best efforts for the cause of environment and environmental awareness.
N.B.: Preference will be given for the applicant schools of districts Bankura, Birbhum, Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling, Hooghly, Jalpaiguri, Malda, Murshidabad, Purba Medinipur, Purulia, Uttar Dinajpur for the financial year 2011-12.
Click here to view the names of Grossly Polluting Industries (Identified as NRCD Industries) which are discharging effluents into river Ganga or its' tributeries".